Colonization of Costa Rica
In Spanish, “Costa Rica” translates to “rich coast,” the name it was given by the first Spanish settlers who arrived in the country in the early years of the 16th century. However, Costa Rica has been home to several indigenous tribes for thousands of years, but the arrival of the Spanish and the country’s subsequent colonization were among the most defining events in the nation’s history.
On the precipice of change
Renowned explorer Christopher Columbus first arrived in Costa Rica in 1502. It was Columbus’ fourth voyage to the New World, but the trip didn’t go as planned. Caught in a violent storm, Columbus’ ship was forced to drop anchor just off the coast of Limón. While the vessel’s crew labored to repair the damaged ship, Columbus went ashore and met the indigenous people of the region, the Bribri. Columbus was taken aback by the natives’ hospitality, but he was even more struck by the lavish jewels and gold the tribespeople wore. In a famous journal entry, Columbus noted that he “saw more signs of gold in the first two days than I saw in Spain in four years.”
Word of the rich material wealth of Costa Rica soon spread to the Spanish mainland. Believing the country to be an untapped paradise with near-limitless treasures, King Ferdinand of Spain ordered a governor, Diego de Nicuesa, to set sail en masse for Costa Rica and colonize the eastern coast in 1506. However, the fleet’s operation was a disaster, largely due to the wild, untamed jungles, deadly predators and increasingly resourceful attacks of the native tribes. Despite the gradual colonization of Central America by Spanish conquistadores, it would be almost 50 years before the Spanish successfully colonized Costa Rica.
Tact and diplomacy
In 1561, the Spanish established their first colony in Costa Rica, in the region now known as Cartago. This site was chosen due to the area’s naturally rich volcanic soil, which made it ideal for agricultural development. The small town flourished under the leadership of its governor, Juan Vasquez de Coronado, who employed diplomacy to handle the native tribes of the region. Although de Coronado’s approach to colonization was largely peaceful, skirmishes between the colonists and the native tribes often flared up, and these guerilla attacks proved challenging for the burgeoning communities of the Central Valley.
Unlike some other Spanish colonies of the time, Costa Rica posed certain unique challenges, namely the lack of a ready-made workforce of slaves. Fierce resistance to colonization by the country’s native tribes meant the grand, opulent plantations seen in Panama and Nicaragua were largely impractical. As a result, Spanish settlers were often forced to run small, subsistence-based farms. Even the colony’s governor was reportedly forced to plant, till and reap his own crops in 1719 to avoid starvation.
Considered a backwater by the Spanish monarchy and surrounding colonies, Costa Rica and its settlers were largely left to their own devices, resulting in the unique blend of Spanish and Central American cultures that is still evident today. Although the Spanish gradually established other settlements outside the Central Valley, the pace of colonization was not nearly as aggressive as in other Spanish colonies.
Costa Rica would not cast off the shackles of Spanish rule until 1821. Just four years later, Guanacaste, which was formerly under the jurisdiction of neighboring Nicaragua, was annexed and officially became a part of Costa Rica. Although conflict between the native tribes and Spanish settlers was common, and many lives were lost, the cultural influence of Spain endures to this day. Evidence of this can be seen everywhere in this amazing country, from the as the Roman catholic churches erected during the colonization period stand proud in the very center of every single town, no matter how small or big it is.